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I maintain rEFInd, so I understand how it works and interacts with Ubuntu pretty well; but I’m also not without my own biases and preferences. (I forked rEFIt into rEFInd because I dislike GRUB 2 and I thought much of what rEFIt did was elegant, but not quite what I needed.)

In most cases, rEFInd works. It’s rare to experience post-boot problems with any boot loader; once the kernel boots, it either works completely or not at all. (There are occasional exceptions to this rule, but as I said, they’re rare.) Thus, if rEFInd boots your system, you needn’t worry too much about follow-on problems. That said, there are advantages and disadvantages to any piece of software, including boot loaders. Compared to GRUB, these points spring to mind concerning rEFInd:

  • rEFInd advantages/GRUB disadvantages
    • Because it scans for kernels on every boot, rEFInd is more adaptive and is less reliant on configuration files. This is most important if you’re booting multiple Linux distributions, since in such a setup, you need to take care that the main GRUB’s configuration file knows about changes to the other distribution’s kernels.
    • GRUB’s configuration file format is very complex. It usually works OK because its configuration scripts do the right thing most of the time; but when the scripts get it wrong, fixing it can be a nightmare. Because rEFInd’s configuration files are simpler, it tends to be easier to fix and tweak its configuration.
    • rEFInd has more eye candy, as you point out.
    • rEFInd is more reliable at booting Windows with Secure Boot active. (See this bug report for information on a moderately common problem with GRUB that doesn’t affect rEFInd.)
    • rEFInd can launch BIOS-mode boot loaders; GRUB can’t. For most people, and particularly people with UEFI-based PCs, this isn’t a big deal. Some Mac users need BIOS-mode compatibility to dual-boot with Windows 7, though.
    • rEFInd on a USB flash drive or CD-R can boot an Ubuntu installation that’s become unbootable. There are some caveats and limitations, but even if you don’t use rEFInd on your hard disk, having it on a USB flash drive or CD-R can be a useful emergency tool.
    • GRUB’s configuration scripts can be slow to run. On a complex setup, installing a new kernel can take a minute or more just because these scripts are triggered and they take a ridiculous amount of time to scan the system for kernels and an assortment of boot loaders and to rebuild the configuration file with what’s found. Note that you’ll experience this problem even if you use rEFInd unless you uninstall GRUB (or don’t install it to begin with).
    • When working with Secure Boot, rEFInd always enforces Secure Boot policies. GRUB might or might not do so when launching Linux kernels, depending on the GRUB version in use. (Prior to Ubuntu 16.04, Ubuntu’s GRUB would launch even unsigned kernels. I think that 16.04 tightens that a bit, but I haven’t yet looked into it in detail.)
  • rEFInd disadvantages/GRUB advantages
    • GRUB is available as an officially-maintained package in Ubuntu, whereas rEFInd is (for now) available as a third-party package and PPA.
    • If I get hit by a bus, development of rEFInd is likely to stop; but GRUB has many more developers, and will not become abandonware in the near future.
    • GRUB supports more platforms (CPUs and firmware types).
    • GRUB is easier to use in a network-boot environment.
    • GRUB can (in theory) load a kernel from within an LVM or RAID setup or on an encrypted partition; rEFInd can’t do this. (rEFInd can still be used with LVM, RAID, and encrypted setups, but the /boot partition must be separate and unencrypted in such configurations.) Note that I said “in theory” because I know of no distribution that takes advantage of this feature, so it is, to the best of my knowledge, poorly tested.
    • rEFInd’s scans for kernels and boot loaders can take a couple of seconds on each boot, so it may be a bit slower than GRUB to appear. (You can minimize this scanning time by installing only those filesystem drivers you actually need and by keeping the partitions that are scanned uncluttered.)
    • Shim was designed to work with GRUB. Although rEFInd also works with Shim, it’s not Shim’s primary target, so there’s the bizarre naming convention of calling rEFInd grubx64.efi to get Shim to launch it; and you’ll need to add at least one entry to the MOK list to get rEFInd to work with Shim.

In addition to these points, there are occasional system-specific incompatibilities and quirks. Such problems can strike either program, so they aren’t really advantages of one or the other.

It’s possible to set your system up so that rEFInd launches GRUB (or vice-versa), but in most cases you’ll end up getting the worst of both programs, not the best, when you do this. On occasion, though, chainloading in this way is desirable — say, if you want the eye candy of rEFInd and the ability to load a kernel from an LVM, RAID, or encrypted partition.

As to the installation instructions to which you link, they’re overly complex. The simplest way to install rEFInd in Ubuntu is to use the PPA after you install Ubuntu:

sudo apt-add-repository ppa:rodsmith/refind
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install refind

The drawback to this approach is that it’s one big leap. If you prefer to test rEFInd before fully installing it, by all means use the USB flash drive, which will let you see how rEFInd works before making any changes to your hard disk.


KMS不仅可以激活Windows 8、Windows 8.1和Windows 7、Windows 10这类我们常用的系统,还可以激活各种版本的Windows Server系统。


Windows 10 (注:由于Win Server 2016还未发布,所以这里暂时没有它的密钥)
操作系统 GVLK密钥
Windows 10 Professional W269N-WFGWX-YVC9B-4J6C9-T83GX
Windows 10 Professional N  (N代表欧洲市场定制版) MH37W-N47XK-V7XM9-C7227-GCQG9
Windows 10 Enterprise NPPR9-FWDCX-D2C8J-H872K-2YT43
Windows 10 Enterprise N DPH2V-TTNVB-4X9Q3-TJR4H-KHJW4
Windows 10 Education NW6C2-QMPVW-D7KKK-3GKT6-VCFB2
Windows 10 Education N 2WH4N-8QGBV-H22JP-CT43Q-MDWWJ
Windows 10 Enterprise 2015 LTSB (长期服务分支) WNMTR-4C88C-JK8YV-HQ7T2-76DF9
Windows 10 Enterprise 2015 LTSB N 2F77B-TNFGY-69QQF-B8YKP-D69TJ

Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows 8.1

操作系统 GVLK密钥
Windows 8.1 Professional GCRJD-8NW9H-F2CDX-CCM8D-9D6T9
Windows 8.1 Professional N HMCNV-VVBFX-7HMBH-CTY9B-B4FXY
Windows 8.1 Enterprise MHF9N-XY6XB-WVXMC-BTDCT-MKKG7
Windows 8.1 Enterprise N TT4HM-HN7YT-62K67-RGRQJ-JFFXW
Windows Server 2012 R2 Server Standard D2N9P-3P6X9-2R39C-7RTCD-MDVJX
Windows Server 2012 R2 Datacenter W3GGN-FT8W3-Y4M27-J84CP-Q3VJ9
Windows Server 2012 R2 Essentials KNC87-3J2TX-XB4WP-VCPJV-M4FWM

Windows Server 2012 and Windows 8

操作系统 GVLK密钥
Windows 8 Professional NG4HW-VH26C-733KW-K6F98-J8CK4
Windows 8 Professional N XCVCF-2NXM9-723PB-MHCB7-2RYQQ
Windows 8 Enterprise 32JNW-9KQ84-P47T8-D8GGY-CWCK7
Windows 8 Enterprise N JMNMF-RHW7P-DMY6X-RF3DR-X2BQT
Windows Server 2012 BN3D2-R7TKB-3YPBD-8DRP2-27GG4
Windows Server 2012 N 8N2M2-HWPGY-7PGT9-HGDD8-GVGGY
Windows Server 2012 Single Language 2WN2H-YGCQR-KFX6K-CD6TF-84YXQ
Windows Server 2012 Country Specific 4K36P-JN4VD-GDC6V-KDT89-DYFKP
Windows Server 2012 Server Standard XC9B7-NBPP2-83J2H-RHMBY-92BT4
Windows Server 2012 MultiPoint Standard HM7DN-YVMH3-46JC3-XYTG7-CYQJJ
Windows Server 2012 MultiPoint Premium XNH6W-2V9GX-RGJ4K-Y8X6F-QGJ2G
Windows Server 2012 Datacenter 48HP8-DN98B-MYWDG-T2DCC-8W83P

Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2

操作系统 GVLK密钥
Windows 7 Professional FJ82H-XT6CR-J8D7P-XQJJ2-GPDD4
Windows 7 Professional N MRPKT-YTG23-K7D7T-X2JMM-QY7MG
Windows 7 Professional E W82YF-2Q76Y-63HXB-FGJG9-GF7QX
Windows 7 Enterprise 33PXH-7Y6KF-2VJC9-XBBR8-HVTHH
Windows 7 Enterprise N YDRBP-3D83W-TY26F-D46B2-XCKRJ
Windows 7 Enterprise E C29WB-22CC8-VJ326-GHFJW-H9DH4
Windows Server 2008 R2 Web 6TPJF-RBVHG-WBW2R-86QPH-6RTM4
Windows Server 2008 R2 HPC edition TT8MH-CG224-D3D7Q-498W2-9QCTX
Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard YC6KT-GKW9T-YTKYR-T4X34-R7VHC
Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise 489J6-VHDMP-X63PK-3K798-CPX3Y
Windows Server 2008 R2 Datacenter 74YFP-3QFB3-KQT8W-PMXWJ-7M648
Windows Server 2008 R2 for Itanium-based Systems GT63C-RJFQ3-4GMB6-BRFB9-CB83V

Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008

操作系统 GVLK密钥
Windows Vista Business YFKBB-PQJJV-G996G-VWGXY-2V3X8
Windows Vista Business N HMBQG-8H2RH-C77VX-27R82-VMQBT
Windows Vista Enterprise VKK3X-68KWM-X2YGT-QR4M6-4BWMV
Windows Vista Enterprise N VTC42-BM838-43QHV-84HX6-XJXKV
Windows Web Server 2008 WYR28-R7TFJ-3X2YQ-YCY4H-M249D
Windows Server 2008 Standard TM24T-X9RMF-VWXK6-X8JC9-BFGM2
Windows Server 2008 Standard without Hyper-V W7VD6-7JFBR-RX26B-YKQ3Y-6FFFJ
Windows Server 2008 Enterprise YQGMW-MPWTJ-34KDK-48M3W-X4Q6V
Windows Server 2008 Enterprise without Hyper-V 39BXF-X8Q23-P2WWT-38T2F-G3FPG
Windows Server 2008 HPC RCTX3-KWVHP-BR6TB-RB6DM-6X7HP
Windows Server 2008 Datacenter 7M67G-PC374-GR742-YH8V4-TCBY3
Windows Server 2008 Datacenter without Hyper-V 22XQ2-VRXRG-P8D42-K34TD-G3QQC
Windows Server 2008 for Itanium-Based Systems 4DWFP-JF3DJ-B7DTH-78FJB-PDRHK


  • 由于UEFI只支持64位的windows10,所以必须安装64位windows。
  • 第二,需要去MS网站下载安装盘,。下载时,选择存为iso文件,再使用rufus软件把下载下来的iso文件制作为u盘启动盘。之所以去微软网站下载安装盘,是因为不知道为什么我原有的iso安装盘在制作好U盘启动盘时候,安装到72%时候报错,提示文件损坏。但曾经用过这个文件安装windows10。所以为了保险起见,直接从MS网站下载安装盘。
  • 在安装windows10时候,在开始安装要求输入系列号的时候,可以跳过,在安装完成后再进行激活。


Use the following instructions to install Windows 10 (non-S) on a Braswell ChromeOS device. These instructions assume your device is already in Developer Mode, and that you’ve removed the firmware write-protect screw.

  1. Flash UEFI firmware:
    • From ChromeOS login screen, hit CTRL + ALT + ->(F2), then login as ‘chronos’ (no password needed)
    • run MrChromebox’s Firmware Utility Script; type in the following and press enter:
      cd; curl -LO && sudo bash
    • Select option 3 (Full ROM firmware). Follow prompts to backup stock firmware on USB.备份的rom文件大概8MB大。作为以后恢复院rom时候用。
    • When flash completed, select ‘p’ to power off. Remove USB with firmware backup
  2. Install Windows(只能是64位的):
    • Insert Windows installer USB and power on. Built-in keyboard will work, but trackpad will not. 可以连鼠标操作,在安装后安装驱动软件可以解决。
    • On install location selection screen, delete all existing partitions on the internal drive. Afterwards, highlight the resulting “unallocated space” entry and click install.
    • When the first stage of install is completed and Windows is ready to reboot, remove the USB install media
    • Complete Windows install: select Wifi network, privacy settings, add user, etc.
  3. Install drivers:
  4. Run Windows Update to install remaining drivers